- (1889-1976)philosopher; widely judged the cen-tral figure in twentieth-century existentialist thought. Born to a Catholic* sexton in the Baden town of Messkirch, he was a Jesuit novice before studying theology at Freiburg. Attracted by the Aristotelian interpretations of Franz Brentano and the logic of Edmund Husserl,* he switched to philosophy and took his doctorate in 1913. After he wrote his Habilitation in 1915 for Heinrich Rickert,* he joined the army and then returned to Freiburg in 1918 as Husserl's assistant. Upon mastering Husserl's phenomenological method, he focused increasingly on Ar-istotle. He gained an appointment in 1923 at Marburg (where he became friends with Rudolf Bultmann) and began developing his own philosophical position. Although he had not published since his Habilitation thesis, his teaching already placed him in the forefront of German philosophy. In 1929, soon after com-pleting his masterful Sein und Zeit (Being and time), he succeeded Husserl, his one-time mentor, at Freiburg.Trained by Husserl, who was of Jewish ancestry, Heidegger publicly re-nounced both the teacher and the substance of his thought when in May 1933 he became Freiburg's rector. In his inaugural address he declared his support for the Nazi revolution. Although he grew disillusioned with Hitler,* his writing consistently evoked a strong nationalism. Supporting a mystical view of lan-guage, he once argued that philosophizing was possible only in German and, perhaps, Greek. As late as 1953 he appealed to Germans, in Einfuhrung in die Metaphysik (Introduction to metaphysics), to renew their "substance" (Sein) between the barbaric societies of America and Russia. He was retired from Freiburg in 1945 as part of denazification.Because Heidegger's meaning to modern philosophy cannot be overestimated, his life should not be assessed solely in political terms. (Some critics maintain, alas, that his philosophy is inseparable from his politics.) His highly original Sein und Zeit—a study that remained only a fragment of what he intended— revolutionized philosophical thought and influenced cognate disciplines such as theology, psychology, and the understanding of language. Using the phenome-nological method without applying its content, he sought to link the divergent thought of neo-Kantianism with existentialism. Although he disclaimed the ex-istentialist" label, he was inspired by S0ren Kierkegaard and, with Karl Jas-pers,* focused his thought on the nature and predicament of human existence. He was especially interested in the individual search for authenticity and the problem of Angst (fear) in preventing its achievement. He remains a major influence on European ideas.REFERENCES:Benz and Graml, Biographisches Lexikon; EP, vol. 3; Pachter, Weimar Etudes; Sluga, Heidegger's Crisis; Wolin, Heidegger Controversy.
A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. C. Paul Vincent.
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Heidegger, Martin — born Sept. 26, 1889, Messkirch, Schwarzwald, Ger. died May 26, 1976, Messkirch, W.Ger. German philosopher. He taught at the universities of Marburg (1923–27) and Freiburg (1927–44). In 1927 he published his magnum opus, Being and Time. It… … Universalium
Heidegger, Martin — (1889 1976) Among the most revered and controversial of modern philosophers, the German existentialist Martin Heidegger spent his career exploring the meaning of Being. While Leibniz believed the fundamental question was Why is there something … Christian Philosophy
Heidegger, Martin — (1889–1976) Philosopher. Heidegger was born in Messkirch, Germany, and was educated at the University of Freiberg. In 1923 he began his teaching career at Marburg, where he was a colleague of Paul tillich and Rudolf bultmann and in 1929 he… … Who’s Who in Christianity
Heidegger, Martin — (1889–1976) German existentialist and social critic. Heidegger is probably the most divisive philosopher of the 20th century, being an acknowledged leader and central figure to many (‘continental’) philosophers, and either a convenient example of … Philosophy dictionary
Heidegger, Martin — ► (1889 1976) Filósofo alemán, su pensamiento tuvo larga hegemonía en la República Federal Alemana. Iniciado en el análisis estructural husserliano de la conciencia pura, y compartiendo la tendencia fenomenológica a la descripción metódica de las … Enciclopedia Universal
HEIDEGGER, Martin — (1884 1976) a central figure in contemporary continental PHILOSOPHY, the development of EXISTENTIALISM and new directions in HERMENEUTICS. In Being and Time (1927) he characterized everyday existence as unauthentic because we are thrown into… … Concise dictionary of Religion
Heidegger,Martin — Hei·deg·ger (hīʹdĕg ər, dĭ gər), Martin. 1889 1976. German existentialist philosopher. His masterpiece, Being and Time (1927), argued that confronting the question of the meaning of being, encompassing one s own death, was central for an… … Universalium
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